Chapter II: The Celebration of the Liturgy of the Word at Mass
1. The Elements of the Liturgy of the Word and Their Rites
11. "Readings from Sacred Scripture and the chants between the readings form
the main part of the liturgy of the word. The homily, the profession of faith,
and the universal prayer or prayer of the faithful carry it forward and conclude
a) THE BIBLICAL READINGS
12. In the celebration of Mass the biblical readings with their accompanying
chants from the Sacred Scriptures may not be omitted, shortened, or, worse
still, replaced by nonbiblical readings. 
For it is out of the word of God handed down in writing that even now "God
speaks to his people"  and it is from the
continued use of Sacred Scripture that the people of God, docile to the Holy
Spirit under the light of faith, is enabled to bear witness to Christ before the
world by its manner of life.
13. The reading of the Gospel is the high point of the liturgy of the word.
For this the other readings, in their established sequence from the Old to the
New Testament, prepare the assembly.
14. A speaking style on the part of the readers that is audible, clear, and
intelligent is the first means of transmitting the word of God properly to the
congregation. The readings, taken from the approved editions,
 may be sung in a way suited to different
languages. This singing, however, must serve to bring out the sense of the
words, not obscure them. On occasions when the readings are in Latin, the manner
given in the Ordo cantus Missae is to be maintained.
15. There may be concise introductions before the readings, especially the
first. The style proper to such comments must be respected, that is, they must
be simple, faithful to the text, brief, well prepared, and properly varied to
suit the text they introduce. 
16. In a Mass with the people the readings are always to be proclaimed at the
17. Of all the rites connected with the liturgy of the word, the reverence
due to the Gospel reading must receive special attention.
 Where there is an Evangeliary or Book of
Gospels that has been carried in by the deacon or reader during the entry
procession,  it is most fitting that the
deacon or a priest, when there is no deacon, take the book from the altar
 and carry it to the ambo. He is preceded by
servers with candles and incense or other symbols of reverence that may be
customary. As the faithful stand and acclaim the Lord, they show honor to the
Book of Gospels. The deacon who is to read the Gospel, bowing in front of the
one presiding, asks and receives the blessing. When no deacon is present, the
priest, bowing before the altar, prays inaudibly, Almighty God, cleanse my
At the ambo the one who proclaims the Gospel greets the people, who are
standing, and announces the reading as he makes the sign of the cross on
forehead, mouth, and breast. If incense is used, he next incenses the book, then
reads the Gospel. When finished, he kisses the book, saying the appointed words
Even if the Gospel itself is not sung, it is appropriate for the greeting The
Lord be with you, and A reading from the holy Gospel according to .... and at
the end The Gospel of the Lord to be sung, in order that the congregation may
also sing its acclamations. This is a way both of bringing out the importance of
the Gospel reading and of stirring up the faith of those who hear it.
18. At the conclusion of the other readings, The word of the Lord may be
sung, even by someone other than the reader; all respond with the acclamation.
In this way the assembled congregation pays reverence to the word of God it has
listened to in faith and gratitude.
b) THE RESPONSORIAL PSALM
19. The responsorial psalm, also called the gradual, has great liturgical and
pastoral significance because it is an "integral part of the liturgy of the
word."  Accordingly, the faithful must
be continually instructed on the way to perceive the word of God speaking in the
psalms and to turn these psalms into the prayer of the Church. This, of course,
"will be achieved more readily if a deeper understanding of the psalms,
according to the meaning with which they are sung in the sacred Liturgy, is more
diligently promoted among the clergy and communicated to all the faithful by
means of appropriate catechesis." 
Brief remarks about the choice of the psalm and response as well as their
correspondence to the readings may be helpful.
20. As a rule the responsorial psalm should be sung. There are two
established ways of singing the psalm after the first reading: responsorially
and directly. In responsorial singing, which, as far as possible, is to be given
preference, the psalmist, or cantor of the psalm, sings the psalm verse and the
whole congregation joins in by singing the response. In direct singing of the
psalm there is no intervening response by the community; either the psalmist, or
cantor of the psalm, sings the psalm alone as the community listens or else all
sing it together.
21. The singing of the psalm, or even of the response alone, is a great help
toward understanding and meditating on the psalm's spiritual meaning.
To foster the congregation's singing, every means available in each
individual culture is to be employed. In particular, use is to be made of all
the relevant options provided in the Order of Readings for Mass
 regarding responses corresponding to the
different liturgical seasons.
22. When not sung, the psalm after the reading is to be recited in a manner
conducive to meditation on the word of God. 
The responsorial psalm is sung or recited by the psalmist or cantor at the
c) THE ACCLAMATION BEFORE THE READING OF THE GOSPEL
23. The Alleluia or, as the liturgical season requires, the verse before the
Gospel is also a "rite or act standing by itself."
 It serves as the greeting of welcome of the
assembled faithful to the Lord who is about to speak to them and as an
expression of their faith through song.
The Alleluia or the verse before the Gospel must be sung, and during it all
stand. It is not to be sung only by the cantor who intones it or by the choir,
but by the whole of the people together. 
d) THE HOMILY
24. Through the course of the liturgical year the homily sets forth the
mysteries of faith and the standards of the Christian life on the basis of the
sacred text. Beginning with the Constitution on the Liturgy, the homily as part
of the liturgy of the word" has been repeatedly and strongly recommended
and in some cases it is obligatory. As a rule it is to be given by the one
presiding.  The purpose of the homily at
Mass is that the spoken word of God and the liturgy of the Eucharist may
together become "a proclamation of God's wonderful works in the history of
salvation, the mystery of Christ." 
Through the readings and homily Christ's paschal mystery is proclaimed; through
the sacrifice of the Mass it becomes present.
 Moreover Christ himself is always present
and active in the preaching of his Church. 
Whether the homily explains the text of the Sacred Scriptures proclaimed in
the readings or some other text of the Liturgy,
 it must always lead the community of the
faithful to celebrate the Eucharist actively, "so that they may hold fast
in their lives to what they have grasped by faith."
 From this living explanation, the word of
God proclaimed in the readings and the Church's celebration of the day's Liturgy
will have greater impact. But this demands that the homily be truly the fruit of
meditation, carefully prepared, neither too long nor too short, and suited to
all those present, even children and the uneducated.
At a concelebration, the celebrant or one of the concelebrants as a rule
gives the homily. 
25. On the prescribed days, that is, Sundays and holydays of obligation,
there must be a homily in all Masses celebrated with a congregation, even Masses
on the preceding evening; the homily may not be omitted without a serious
reason.  There is also to be a homily in
Masses with children and with special groups.
A homily is strongly recommended on the weekdays of Advent, Lent, and the
Easter season for the sake of the faithful who regularly take part in the
celebration of Mass; also on other feasts and occasions when a large
congregation is present. 
26. The priest celebrant gives the homily, standing either at the chair or at
the ambo. 
27. Any necessary announcements are to be kept completely separate from the
homily; they must take place following the prayer after Communion.
28. The liturgy of the word must be celebrated in a way that fosters
meditation; clearly, any sort of haste that hinders recollection must be
avoided. The dialogue between God and his people taking place through the Holy
Spirit demands short intervals of silence, suited to the assembled congregation,
as an opportunity to take the word of God to heart and to prepare a response to
it in prayer.
Proper times for silence during the liturgy of the word are, for example,
before this liturgy begins, after the first and the second reading, after the
f) THE PROFESSION OF FAITH
29. The symbol, creed or profession of faith, said when the rubrics require,
has as its purpose in the celebration of Mass that the assembled congregation
may respond and give assent to the word of God heard in the readings and through
the homily, and that before beginning to celebrate in the Eucharist the mystery
of faith it may call to mind the rule of faith in a formulary approved by the
g) THE UNIVERSAL PRAYER OR PRAYER OF THE FAITHFUL
30. In the light of God's word and in a sense in response to it, the
congregation of the faithful prays in the universal prayer as a rule for the
needs of the universal Church and the local community, for the salvation of the
world and those oppressed by any burden, and for special categories of people.
The celebrant introduces the prayer; a deacon, another minister, or some of
the faithful may propose intentions that are short and phrased with a measure of
freedom. In these petitions "the people, exercising its priestly function,
makes intercession for all men and women,"
 with the result that, as the liturgy of the
word has its full effects in the faithful, they are better prepared to proceed
to the liturgy of the Eucharist.
31. For the prayer of the faithful the celebrant presides at the chair and
the intentions are announced at the ambo. 
The assembled congregation takes part in the prayer of the faithful while
standing and by saying or singing a common response after each intention or by
silent prayer. 
2. Aids to the Proper Celebration of the Liturgy of the Word
a) THE PLACE FOR THE PROCLAMATION OF THE WORD OF GOD
32. There must be a place in the church that is somewhat elevated, fixed, and
of a suitable design and nobility. It should reflect the dignity of God's word
and be a clear reminder to the people that in the Mass the table of God's word
and of Christ's body is placed before them. 
The place for the readings must also truly help the people's listening and
attention during the liturgy of the word. Great pains must therefore be taken,
in keeping with the design of each church, over the harmonious and close
relationship of the ambo with the altar.
33. Either permanently or at least on occasions of greater solemnity, the
ambo should be decorated simply and in keeping with its design.
Since the ambo is the place from which the word of God is proclaimed by the
ministers, it must of its nature be reserved for the readings, the responsorial
psalm, and the Easter Proclamation (the Exsultet). The ambo may rightly be used
for the homily and the prayer of the faithful, however, because of their close
connection with the entire liturgy of the word. It is better for the
commentator, cantor, or director of singing, for example, not to use the ambo.
34. In order that the ambo may properly serve its liturgical purpose, it is
to be rather large, since on occasion several ministers must use it at the same
time. Provision must also be made for the readers to have enough light to read
the text and, as required, to have modern sound equipment enabling the faithful
to hear them without difficulty.
b) THE BOOKS FOR PROCLAMATION OF THE WORD OF GOD IN THE LITURGY
35. Along with the ministers, the actions, the allocated places, and other
elements, the books containing the readings of the word of God remind the
hearers of the presence of God speaking to his people. Since in liturgical
celebrations the books too serve as signs and symbols of the higher realities,
care must be taken to ensure that they truly are worthy, dignified and
36. The proclamation of the Gospel always stands as the high point of the
liturgy of the word. Thus the liturgical tradition of both West and East has
consistently made a certain distinction between the books for the readings. The
Book of Gospels was always fabricated and decorated with the utmost care and
shown greater respect than any of the other books of readings. In our times
also, then, it is very desirable that cathedrals and at least the larger, more
populous parishes and the churches with a larger attendance possess a
beautifully designed Book of Gospels, separate from any other book of readings.
For good reason it is the Book of Gospels that is presented to a deacon at his
ordination and that at an ordination to the episcopate is laid upon the head of
the bishop-elect and held there. 
37. Because of the dignity of the word of God, the books of readings used in
the celebration are not to be replaced by other pastoral aids, for example, by
leaflets printed for the preparation of the readings by the faithful or for
their personal meditation.