Part I-C.The Liturgy Under the Hierarchy of the Church
38. For a better and more accurate understanding of the sacred liturgy another of its
characteristic features, no less important, needs to be considered.
39. The Church is a society, and as such requires an authority and hierarchy of her own.
Though it is true that all the members of the Mystical Body partake of the same blessings
and pursue the same objective, they do not all enjoy the same powers, nor are they all
qualified to perform the same acts. The divine Redeemer has willed, as a matter of fact,
that His Kingdom should be built and solidly supported, as it were, on a holy order, which
resembles in some sort the heavenly hierarchy.
40. Only to the apostles, and thenceforth to those on whom their successors have imposed
hands, is granted the power of the priesthood, in virtue of which they represent the
person of Jesus Christ before their people, acting at the same time as representatives of
their people before God. This priesthood is not transmitted by heredity or human descent.
It does not emanate from the Christian community. It is not a delegation from the people.
Prior to acting as representative of the community before the throne of God, the priest is
the ambassador of the divine Redeemer. He is God's vice-regent in the midst of his flock
precisely because Jesus Christ is Head of that body of which Christians are the members.
The power entrusted to him, therefore, bears no natural resemblance to anything human. It
is entirely supernatural. It comes from God. "As the Father hath sent me, I also send
you. . . he that heareth you heareth me. . . go ye into the whole world and preach the
gospel to every creature; he that believeth and is baptized shall be saved."
41. That is why the visible, external priesthood of Jesus Christ is not handed down
indiscriminately to all members of the Church in general, but is conferred on designated
men, through what may be called the spiritual generation of holy orders.
42. This latter, one of the seven sacraments, not only imparts the grace appropriate to
the clerical function and state of life, but imparts an indelible "character"
besides, indicating the sacred ministers' conformity to Jesus Christ the Priest and
qualifying them to perform those official acts of religion by which men are sanctified and
God is duly glorified in keeping with the divine laws and regulations.
43. In the same way, actually that baptism is the distinctive mark of all Christians, and
serves to differentiate them from those who have not been cleansed in this purifying
stream and consequently are not members of Christ, the sacrament of holy orders sets the
priest apart from the rest of the faithful who have not received this consecration. For
they alone, in answer to an inward supernatural call, have entered the august ministry,
where they are assigned to service in the sanctuary and become, as it were, the
instruments God uses to communicate supernatural life from on high to the Mystical Body of
Jesus Christ. Add to this, as We have noted above, the fact that they alone have been
marked with the indelible sign "conforming" them to Christ the Priest, and that
their hands alone have been consecrated "in order that whatever they bless may be
blessed, whatever they consecrate may become sacred and holy, in the name of our Lord
Jesus Christ" Let all, then, who would
live in Christ flock to their priests. By them they will be supplied with the comforts and
food of the spiritual life. From them they will procure the medicine of salvation assuring
their cure and happy recovery from the fatal sickness of their sins. The priest, finally,
will bless their homes, consecrate their families and help them, as they breathe their
last, across the threshold of eternal happiness.
44. Since, therefore, it is the priest chiefly who performs the sacred liturgy in the name
of the Church, its organization, regulation and details cannot but be subject to Church
authority. This conclusion, based on the nature of Christian worship itself, is further
confirmed by the testimony of history.
45. Additional proof of this indefeasible right of the ecclesiastical hierarchy lies in
the circumstances that the sacred liturgy is intimately bound up with doctrinal
propositions which the Church proposes to be perfectly true and certain, and must as a
consequence conform to the decrees respecting Catholic faith issued by the supreme
teaching authority of the Church with a view to safeguarding the integrity of the religion
revealed by God.
46. On this subject We judge it Our duty to rectify an attitude with which you are
doubtless familiar, Venerable Brethren. We refer to the error and fallacious reasoning of
those who have claimed that the sacred liturgy is a kind of proving ground for the truths
to be held of faith, meaning by this that the Church is obliged to declare such a doctrine
sound when it is found to have produced fruits of piety and sanctity through the sacred
rites of the liturgy, and to reject it otherwise. Hence the epigram, "Lex orandi, lex
credendi"--the law for prayer is the law for faith.
47. But this is not what the Church teaches and enjoins. The worship she offers to God,
all good and great, is a continuous profession of Catholic faith and a continuous exercise
of hope and charity, as Augustine puts it tersely. "God is to be worshipped," he
says, "by faith, hope and charity."
In the sacred liturgy we profess the Catholic faith explicitly and openly, not only by the
celebration of the mysteries, and by offering the holy sacrifice and administering the
sacraments, but also by saying or singing the credo or Symbol of the faith--it is indeed
the sign and badge, as it were, of the Christian--along with other texts, and likewise by
the reading of holy scripture, written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. The entire
liturgy, therefore, has the Catholic faith for its content, inasmuch as it bears public
witness to the faith of the Church.
48. For this reason, whenever there was question of defining a truth revealed by God, the
Sovereign Pontiff and the Councils in their recourse to the "theological
sources," as they are called, have not seldom drawn many an argument from this sacred
science of the liturgy. For an example in point, Our predecessor of immortal memory, Pius
IX, so argued when he proclaimed the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary. Similarly
during the discussion of a doubtful or controversial truth, the Church and the Holy
Fathers have not failed to look to the age-old and age-honored sacred rites for
enlightenment. Hence the well-known and venerable maxim, "Legem credendi lex statuat
supplicandi"--let the rule for prayer determine the rule of belief. The sacred liturgy, consequently, does not decide
or determine independently and of itself what is of Catholic faith. More properly, since
the liturgy is also a profession of eternal truths, and subject, as such, to the supreme
teaching authority of the Church, it can supply proofs and testimony, quite clearly, of no
little value, towards the determination of a particular point of Christian doctrine. But
if one desires to differentiate and describe the relationship between faith and the sacred
liturgy in absolute and general terms, it is perfectly correct to say, "Lex credendi
legem statuat supplicandi"--let the rule of belief determine the rule of prayer. The
same holds true for the other theological virtues also, "In . . . fide, spe, caritate
continuato desiderio semper oramus"--we pray always, with constant yearning in faith,
hope and charity.