Part II-B.Participation of the Faithful in the Eucharistic Sacrifice
80. It is, therefore, desirable, Venerable Brethren, that all the faithful should be aware
that to participate in the eucharistic sacrifice is their chief duty and supreme dignity,
and that not in an inert and negligent fashion, giving way to distractions and
day-dreaming, but with such earnestness and concentration that they may be united as
closely as possible with the High Priest, according to the Apostle, "Let this mind be
in you which was also in Christ Jesus."
And together with Him and through Him let them make their oblation, and in union with Him
let them offer up themselves.
81. It is quite true that Christ is a priest; but He is a priest not for Himself but for
us, when in the name of the whole human race He offers our prayers and religious homage to
the eternal Father; He is also a victim and for us since He substitutes Himself for sinful
man. Now the exhortation of the Apostle, "Let this mind be in you which was also in
Christ Jesus," requires that all Christians should possess, as far as is humanly
possible, the same dispositions as those which the divine Redeemer had when He offered
Himself in sacrifice: that is to say, they should in a humble attitude of mind, pay
adoration, honor, praise and thanksgiving to the supreme majesty of God. Moreover, it
means that they must assume to some extent the character of a victim, that they deny
themselves as the Gospel commands, that freely and of their own accord they do penance and
that each detests and satisfies for his sins. It means, in a word, that we must all
undergo with Christ a mystical death on the cross so that we can apply to ourselves the
words of St. Paul, "With Christ I am nailed to the cross."
82. The fact, however, that the faithful participate in the eucharistic sacrifice does not
mean that they also are endowed with priestly power. It is very necessary that you make
this quite clear to your flocks.
83. For there are today, Venerable Brethren, those who, approximating to errors long since
condemned  teach that in the New Testament by
the word "priesthood" is meant only that priesthood which applies to all who
have been baptized; and hold that the command by which Christ gave power to His apostles
at the Last Supper to do what He Himself had done, applies directly to the entire
Christian Church, and that thence, and thence only, arises the hierarchical priesthood.
Hence they assert that the people are possessed of a true priestly power, while the priest
only acts in virtue of an office committed to him by the community. Wherefore, they look
on the eucharistic sacrifice as a "concelebration," in the literal meaning of
that term, and consider it more fitting that priests should "concelebrate" with
the people present than that they should offer the sacrifice privately when the people are
84. It is superfluous to explain how captious errors of this sort completely contradict
the truths which we have just stated above, when treating of the place of the priest in
the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ. But we deem it necessary to recall that the priest acts
for the people only because he represents Jesus Christ, who is Head of all His members and
offers Himself in their stead. Hence, he goes to the altar as the minister of Christ,
inferior to Christ but superior to the people.The
people, on the other hand, since they in no sense represent the divine Redeemer and are
not mediator between themselves and God, can in no way possess the sacerdotal power.
85. All this has the certitude of faith. However, it must also be said that the faithful
do offer the divine Victim, though in a different sense.
86. This has already been stated in the clearest terms by some of Our predecessors and
some Doctors of the Church. "Not only," says Innocent III of immortal memory,
"do the priests offer the sacrifice, but also all the faithful: for what the priest
does personally by virtue of his ministry, the faithful do collectively by virtue of their
intention."We are happy to recall one of
St. Robert Bellarmine's many statements on this subject. "The sacrifice," he
says "is principally offered in the person of Christ. Thus the oblation that follows
the consecration is a sort of attestation that the whole Church consents in the oblation
made by Christ, and offers it along with Him."
87. Moreover, the rites and prayers of the eucharistic sacrifice signify and show no less
clearly that the oblation of the Victim is made by the priests in company with the people.
For not only does the sacred minister, after the oblation of the bread and wine when he
turns to the people, say the significant prayer: "Pray brethren, that my sacrifice
and yours may be acceptable to God the Father Almighty;" but also the prayers by which the divine Victim is
offered to God are generally expressed in the plural number: and in these it is indicated
more than once that the people also participate in this august sacrifice inasmuch as they
offer the same. The following words, for example, are used: "For whom we offer, or
who offer up to Thee . . . We therefore beseech thee, O Lord, to be appeased and to
receive this offering of our bounded duty, as also of thy whole household. . . We thy
servants, as also thy whole people . . . do offer unto thy most excellent majesty, of
thine own gifts bestowed upon us, a pure victim, a holy victim, a spotless victim."
88. Nor is it to be wondered at, that the faithful should be raised to this dignity. By
the waters of baptism, as by common right, Christians are made members of the Mystical
Body of Christ the Priest, and by the "character" which is imprinted on their
souls, they are appointed to give worship to God. Thus they participate, according to
their condition, in the priesthood of Christ.
89. In every age of the Church's history, the mind of man, enlightened by faith, has aimed
at the greatest possible knowledge of things divine. It is fitting, then, that the
Christian people should also desire to know in what sense they are said in the canon of
the Mass to offer up the sacrifice. To satisfy such a pious desire, then, We shall here
explain the matter briefly and concisely.
90. First of all the more extrinsic explanations are these: it frequently happens that the
faithful assisting at Mass join their prayers alternately with those of the priest, and
sometimes--a more frequent occurrence in ancient times--they offer to the ministers at the
altar bread and wine to be changed into the body and blood of Christ, and, finally, by
their alms they get the priest to offer the divine victim for their intentions.
91. But there is also a more profound reason why all Christians, especially those who are
present at Mass, are said to offer the sacrifice.
92. In this most important subject it is necessary, in order to avoid giving rise to a
dangerous error, that we define the exact meaning of the word "offer." The
unbloody immolation at the words of consecration, when Christ is made present upon the
altar in the state of a victim, is performed by the priest and by him alone, as the
representative of Christ and not as the representative of the faithful. But it is because
the priest places the divine victim upon the altar that he offers it to God the Father as
an oblation for the glory of the Blessed Trinity and for the good of the whole Church. Now
the faithful participate in the oblation, understood in this limited sense, after their
own fashion and in a twofold manner, namely, because they not only offer the sacrifice by
the hands of the priest, but also, to a certain extent, in union with him. It is by reason
of this participation that the offering made by the people is also included in liturgical
93. Now it is clear that the faithful offer the sacrifice by the hands of the priest from
the fact that the minister at the altar, in offering a sacrifice in the name of all His
members, represents Christ, the Head of the Mystical Body. Hence the whole Church can
rightly be said to offer up the victim through Christ. But the conclusion that the people
offer the sacrifice with the priest himself is not based on the fact that, being members
of the Church no less than the priest himself, they perform a visible liturgical rite; for
this is the privilege only of the minister who has been divinely appointed to this office:
rather it is based on the fact that the people unite their hearts in praise, impetration,
expiation and thanksgiving with prayers or intention of the priest, even of the High
Priest himself, so that in the one and same offering of the victim and according to a
visible sacerdotal rite, they may be presented to God the Father. It is obviously
necessary that the external sacrificial rite should, of its very nature, signify the
internal worship of the heart. Now the sacrifice of the New Law signifies that supreme
worship by which the principal Offerer himself, who is Christ, and, in union with Him and
through Him, all the members of the Mystical Body pay God the honor and reverence that are
due to Him.
94. We are very pleased to learn that this teaching, thanks to a more intense study of the
liturgy on the part of many, especially in recent years, has been given full recognition.
We must, however, deeply deplore certain exaggerations and over-statements which are not
in agreement with the true teaching of the Church.
95. Some in fact disapprove altogether of those Masses which are offered privately and
without any congregation, on the ground that they are a departure from the ancient way of
offering the sacrifice; moreover, there are some who assert that priests cannot offer Mass
at different altars at the same time, because, by doing so, they separate the community of
the faithful and imperil its unity; while some go so far as to hold that the people must
confirm and ratify the sacrifice if it is to have its proper force and value.
96. They are mistaken in appealing in this matter to the social character of the
eucharistic sacrifice, for as often as a priest repeats what the divine Redeemer did at
the Last Supper, the sacrifice is really completed. Moreover, this sacrifice, necessarily
and of its very nature, has always and everywhere the character of a public and social
act, inasmuch as he who offers it acts in the name of Christ and of the faithful, whose
Head is the divine Redeemer, and he offers it to God for the holy Catholic Church, and for
the living and the dead. This is undoubtedly
so, whether the faithful are present--as we desire and commend them to be in great numbers
and with devotion--or are not present, since it is in no wise required that the people
ratify what the sacred minister has done.
97. Still, though it is clear from what We have said that the Mass is offered in the name
of Christ and of the Church and that it is not robbed of its social effects though it be
celebrated by a priest without a server, nonetheless, on account of the dignity of such an
august mystery, it is our earnest desire--as Mother Church has always commanded--that no
priest should say Mass unless a server is at hand to answer the prayers, as canon 813
98. In order that the oblation by which the faithful offer the divine Victim in this
sacrifice to the heavenly Father may have its full effect, it is necessary that the people
add something else, namely, the offering of themselves as a victim.
99. This offering in fact is not confined merely to the liturgical sacrifice. For the
Prince of the Apostles wishes us, as living stones built upon Christ, the cornerstone, to
be able as "a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by
Jesus Christ." St. Paul the Apostle
addresses the following words of exhortation to Christians, without distinction of time,
"I beseech you therefore, . . . that you present your bodies, a living sacrifice,
holy, pleasing unto God, your reasonable service."
But at that time especially when the faithful take part in the liturgical service with
such piety and recollection that it can truly be said of them: "whose faith and
devotion is known to Thee," it is then,
with the High Priest and through Him they offer themselves as a spiritual sacrifice, that
each one's faith ought to become more ready to work through charity, his piety more real
and fervent, and each one should consecrate himself to the furthering of the divine glory,
desiring to become as like as possible to Christ in His most grievous sufferings.
100. This we are also taught by those exhortations which the Bishop, in the Church's name,
addresses to priests on the day of their ordination, "Understand what you do, imitate
what you handle, and since you celebrate the mystery of the Lord's death, take good care
to mortify your members with their vices and concupiscences." In almost the same manner the sacred books of the
liturgy advise Christians who come to Mass to participate in the sacrifice: "At this
. . . altar let innocence be in honor, let pride be sacrificed, anger slain, impurity and
every evil desire laid low, let the sacrifice of chastity be offered in place of doves and
instead of the young pigeons the sacrifice of innocence." While we stand before the altar, then, it is our
duty so to transform our hearts, that every trace of sin may be completely blotted out,
while whatever promotes supernatural life through Christ may be zealously fostered and
strengthened even to the extent that, in union with the immaculate Victim, we become a
victim acceptable to the eternal Father.
101. The prescriptions in fact of the sacred liturgy aim, by every means at their
disposal, at helping the Church to bring about this most holy purpose in the most suitable
manner possible. This is the object not only of readings, homilies and other sermons given
by priests, as also the whole cycle of mysteries which are proposed for our commemoration
in the course of the year, but it is also the purpose of vestments, of sacred rites and
their external splendor. All these things aim at "enhancing the majesty of this great
Sacrifice, and raising the minds of the faithful by means of these visible signs of
religion and piety, to the contemplation of the sublime truths contained in this
102. All the elements of the liturgy, then, would have us reproduce in our hearts the
likeness of the divine Redeemer through the mystery of the cross, according to the words
of the Apostle of the Gentiles, "With Christ I am nailed to the cross. I live, now
not 1, but Christ liveth in me." Thus we
become a victim, as it were, along with Christ to increase the glory of the eternal
103. Let this, then, be the intention and aspiration of the faithful, when they offer up
the divine Victim in the Mass. For if, as St. Augustine writes, our mystery is enacted on
the Lord's table, that is Christ our Lord Himself,
who is the Head and symbol of that union through which we are the body of Christ and members of His Body; if St. Robert Bellarmine teaches, according to the
mind of the Doctor of Hippo, that in the sacrifice of the altar there is signified the
general sacrifice by which the whole Mystical Body of Christ, that is, all the city of
redeemed, is offered up to God through Christ, the High Priest: nothing can be conceived more just or fitting than
that all of us in union with our Head, who suffered for our sake, should also sacrifice
ourselves to the eternal Father. For in the sacrament of the altar, as the same St.
Augustine has it, the Church is made to see that in what she offers she herself is
104. Let the faithful, therefore, consider to what a high dignity they are raised by the
sacrament of baptism. They should not think it enough to participate in the eucharistic
sacrifice with that general intention which befits members of Christ and children of the
Church, but let them further, in keeping with the spirit of the sacred liturgy, be most
closely united with the High Priest and His earthly minister, at the time the consecration
of the divine Victim is enacted, and at that time especially when those solemn words are
pronounced, "By Him and with Him and in Him is to Thee, God the Father almighty, in
the unity of the Holy Ghost, all honor and glory for ever and ever"; to these words in fact the people answer,
"Amen." Nor should Christians forget to offer themselves, their cares, their
sorrows, their distress and their necessities in union with their divine Savior upon the
105. Therefore, they are to be praised who, with the idea of getting the
Christian people to take part more easily and more fruitfully in the Mass, strive to make
them familiar with the "Roman Missal," so that the faithful, united with the
priest, may pray together in the very words and sentiments of the Church. They also are to
be commended who strive to make the liturgy even in an external way a sacred act in which
all who are present may share. This can be done in more than one way, when, for instance,
the whole congregation, in accordance with the rules of the liturgy, either answer the
priest in an orderly and fitting manner, or sing hymns suitable to the different parts of
the Mass, or do both, or finally in high Masses when they answer the prayers of the
minister of Jesus Christ and also sing the liturgical chant.
106. These methods of participation in the Mass are to be approved and recommended when
they are in complete agreement with the precepts of the Church and the rubrics of the
liturgy. Their chief aim is to foster and promote the people's piety and intimate union
with Christ and His visible minister and to arouse those internal sentiments and
dispositions which should make our hearts become like to that of the High Priest of the
New Testament. However, though they show also in an outward manner that the very nature of
the sacrifice, as offered by the Mediator between God and men, must be regarded as the act of the whole
Mystical Body of Christ, still they are by no means necessary to constitute it a public
act or to give it a social character. And besides, a "dialogue" Mass of this
kind cannot replace the high Mass, which, as a matter of fact, though it should be offered
with only the sacred ministers present, possesses its own special dignity due to the
impressive character of its ritual and the magnificence of its ceremonies. The splendor
and grandeur of a high Mass, however, are very much increased if, as the Church desires,
the people are present in great numbers and with devotion.
107. It is to be observed, also, that they have strayed from the path of truth and right
reason who, led away by false opinions, make so much of these accidentals as to presume to
assert that without them the Mass cannot fulfill its appointed end.
108. Many of the faithful are unable to use the Roman missal even though it is written in
the vernacular; nor are all capable of understanding correctly the liturgical rites and
formulas. So varied and diverse are men's talents and characters that it is impossible for
all to be moved and attracted to the same extent by community prayers, hymns and
liturgical services. Moreover, the needs and inclinations of all are not the same, nor are
they always constant in the same individual. Who, then, would say, on account of such a
prejudice, that all these Christians cannot participate in the Mass nor share its fruits?
On the contrary, they can adopt some other method which proves easier for certain people;
for instance, they can lovingly meditate on the mysteries of Jesus Christ or perform other
exercises of piety or recite prayers which, though they differ from the sacred rites, are
still essentially in harmony with them.
109. Wherefore We exhort you, Venerable Brethren, that each in his diocese or
ecclesiastical jurisdiction supervise and regulate the manner and method in which the
people take part in the liturgy, according to the rubrics of the missal and in keeping
with the injunctions which the Sacred Congregation of Rites and the Code of canon law have
published. Let everything be done with due order and dignity, and let no one, not even a
priest, make use of the sacred edifices according to his whim to try out experiments. It
is also Our wish that in each diocese an advisory committee to promote the liturgical
apostolate should be established, similar to that which cares for sacred music and art, so
that with your watchful guidance everything may be carefully carried out in accordance
with the prescriptions of the Apostolic See.
110. In religious communities let all those regulations be accurately observed which are
laid down in their respective constitutions, nor let any innovations be made which the
superiors of these communities have not previously approved.
111. But however much variety and disparity there may be in the exterior manner and
circumstances in which the Christian laity participate in the Mass and other liturgical
functions, constant and earnest effort must be made to unite the congregation in spirit as
much as possible with the divine Redeemer, so that their lives may be daily enriched with
more abundant sanctity, and greater glory be given to the heaven Father.