Chapter V. The Liturgical Year
83.Christ Jesus, high priest of the new and eternal covenant, taking human nature,
introduced into this earthly exile that hymn which is sung throughout all ages in the
halls of heaven. He joins the entire community of mankind to Himself, associating it with
His own singing of this canticle of divine praise.
For he continues His priestly work through the agency of His Church, which is
ceaselessly engaged in praising the Lord and interceding for the salvation of the whole
world. She does this, not only by celebrating the eucharist, but also in other ways,
especially by praying the divine office.
84.By tradition going back to early Christian times, the divine office is devised so
that the whole course of the day and night is made holy by the praises of God. Therefore,
when this wonderful song of praise is rightly performed by priests and others who are
deputed for this purpose by the Church's ordinance, or by the faithful praying together
with the priest in the approved form, then it is truly the voice of the bride addressed to
her bridegroom; it is the very prayer which Christ Himself, together with His body,
addresses to the Father.
85.Hence all who render this service are not only fulfilling a duty of the Church, but
also are sharing in the greatest honor of Christ's spouse, for by offering these praises
to God they are standing before God's throne in the name of the Church their Mother.
86.Priests who are engaged in the sacred pastoral ministry will offer the praises of
the hours with greater fervor the more vividly they realize that they must heed St. Paul's
exhortation: "Pray without ceasing" (! Thess. 5:17). For the work in which they
labor will effect nothing and bring forth no fruit except by the power of the Lord who
said: "Without me you can do nothing" (john 15:5). That is why the apostles,
instituting deacons, said: "We will devote ourselves to prayer and to the ministry of
the word" (Acts 6:4).
87.In order that the divine office may be better and more perfectly prayed in existing
circumstances, whether by priests or by other members of the Church, the sacred Council,
carrying further the restoration already so happily begun by the Apostolic See, has seen
fit to decree as follows concerning the office of the Roman rite.
88.Because the purpose of the office is to sanctify the day, the traditional sequence
of the hours is to be restored so that once again they may be genuinely related to the
time of the day when they are prayed, as far as this may be possible. Moreover, it will be
necessary to take into account the modern conditions in which daily life has to be lived,
especially by those who are called to labor in apostolic work.
89.Therefore, when the office is revised, these norms are to be
a)By the venerable tradition of the universal Church, Lauds as morning prayer and
Vespers as evening prayer are the two hinges on which the daily office turns; hence they
are to be considered as the chief hours and are to be celebrated as such.
b)Compline is to be drawn up so that it will be a suitable prayer for the end of the
c)The hour known as Matins, although it should retain the character of the nocturnal
praise when celebrated in choir, shall be adapted so that it may be recited at any hour of
the day; it shall be made up of fewer psalms and longer readings.
d)The hour of Prime is to be suppressed.
e)In choir the hours of Terce, Sext, and None are to be observed. But outside choir it
will be lawful to select any one of these three, according to the respective time of day.
90.The divine office, because it is the public prayer of the Church, is a source of
piety, and nourishment for personal prayer. And therefore priests and all others who take
part in the divine office are earnestly exhorted in the Lord to attune their minds to
their voices when praying it. The better to achieve this, let them take steps to improve
their understanding of the liturgy and of the bible, especially of the psalms.
In revising the Roman office, its ancient and venerable treasures are to be so adapted
that all those to whom they are handed on may more extensively and easily draw profit from
91.So that it may really be possible in practice to observe the course of the hours
proposed in Art. 89, the psalms are no longer to be distributed
throughout one week, but through some longer period of time.
The work of revising the psalter, already happily begun, is to be finished as soon as
possible, and is to take into account the style of the Christian Latin, the liturgical use
of psalms, also when sung, and the entire tradition of the Latin Church.
92.As regards the readings, the following shall be observed:
a)Readings from sacred scripture shall be arranged so that the riches of God's word may
be easily accessible in more abundant measure.
b)Readings excerpted from the works of the fathers, doctors, and ecclesiastical writers
shall be better selected.
c)The accounts of martyrdom or the lives of the saints are to accord with the facts of
93.To whatever extent may seem desirable, the hymns are to be restored to their
original form, and whatever smacks of mythology or ill accord with Christian piety is to
be removed or changed. Also, as occasion may arise, let other selections from the treasury
of hymns be incorporated.
94.That the day may be truly sanctified, and that the hours themselves may be recited
with spiritual advantage, it is best that each of them be prayed at a time which most
closely corresponds with its true canonical time.
95.Communities obliged to choral office are bound to celebrate the office in choir
every day in addition to the conventual Mass. In particular:
a)Orders of canons, of monks and of nuns, and of other regulars bound by law or
constitutions to choral office must celebrate the entire office.
b)Cathedral or collegiate chapters are bound to recite those parts of the office
imposed on them by general or particular law.
c)All members of the above communities who are in major orders or who are solemnly
professed, except for lay brothers, are bound to recite individually those canonical hours
which they do not pray in choir.
96.Clerics not bound to office in choir, if they are in major orders, are bound to pray
the entire office every day, either in common or individually, as laid down in Art. 89.
97.Appropriate instances are to be defined by the rubrics in which a liturgical service
may be substituted for the divine office.
In particular cases, and for a just reason, ordinaries can dispense their subjects
wholly or in part from the obligation of reciting the divine office, or may commute the
98.Members of any institute dedicated to acquiring perfection who, according to their
constitutions, are to recite any parts of the divine office are thereby performing the
public prayer of the Church.
They too perform the public prayer of the Church who, in virtue of their constitutions,
recite any short office, provided this is drawn up after the pattern of the divine office
and is duly approved.
99.Since the divine office is the voice of the Church, that is, of the whole mystical
body publicly praising God, those clerics who are not obliged to office in choir,
especially priests who live together or who assemble for any purpose, are urged to pray at
least some part of the divine office in common.
All who pray the divine office, whether in choir or in common, should fulfill the task
entrusted to them as perfectly as possible: this refers not only to the internal devotion
of their minds but also to their external manner of celebration.
It is, moreover, fitting that the office, both in choir and in common, be sung when
100.Pastors of souls should see to it that the chief hours, especially Vespers, are
celebrated in common in church on Sundays and the more solemn feasts. And the laity, too,
are encouraged to recite the divine office, either with the priests, or among themselves,
or even individually.
101.§1.In accordance with the centuries-old tradition of the Latin
rite, the Latin language is to be retained by clerics in the divine office. But in
individual cases the ordinary has the power of granting the use of a vernacular
translation to those clerics for whom the use of Latin constitutes a grave obstacle to
their praying the office properly. The vernacular version, however, must be one that is
drawn up according to the provisions of Art. 36.
§2.The competent superior has the power to grant the use of the vernacular in the
celebration of the divine office, even in choir, to nuns and to members of institutes
dedicated to acquiring perfection, both men who are not clerics and women. The version,
however, must bee one that is approved.
§3.Any cleric bound to the divine office fulfills his obligation if he prays the
office in the vernacular together with a group of the faithful or with those metioned in
§2 above, provided that the text of the translation is approved.